Let R = S + A - X, where

S = number of sides with two or more pegs,

A = number of pegs marked "A",

X = number of pegs marked "X".

No jump can increase value of R.

For e3-complement, R(start) = -1, R(finish) = 1. Therefore, e3-e3

is impossible. Similar arguments prove e3-e1 and e3-b4 impossible.

Reference: I.Hentzel & R. Hentzel, J. Recreational Mathematics, 1985

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